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CA:Information checklist

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Information checklist for CAs applying for inclusion in Mozilla

In order to support cryptographic applications such as SSL/TLS connections to web and other servers, signed and encrypted email, and verification of digitally signed executable code objects, Firefox and other Mozilla-based products contain digital certificates and related metadata for multiple Certification Authorities (CAs). By including the CA certificates and various associated pre-set metadata values Mozilla-based products can recognize as valid the end entity certificates that are issued under the auspices of the CAs in question and are associated with, e.g., web servers, email senders, and software publishers.

CAs wishing to have their certificates included in Mozilla products must comply with the requirements of the Mozilla CA certificate policy and must supply the information necessary to determine whether or not the policy’s requirements have been satisfied. The information must be provided in a Mozilla Bugzilla bug as described in How_to_apply. This information includes (but is not necessarily limited to) the following.

Here is a template that you may use to provide this information File:CAInformationTemplate.pdf

The information provided by the CA will be verified by a representative of Mozilla to the maximum extent practicable using CAs’ published documentation. Statements attributed to third parties (e.g., auditors) shall be verified with those parties. The information gathered should be published through the appropriate Mozilla channels (e.g., web sites, bug reports, and/or discussion forums).

General information about the associated organization of the CA

  1. Name
    • This is the name by which the CA is most commonly known, e.g., "GeoTrust"
  2. Website URL
  3. Organizational type
    • Indicate whether the CA is operated by a private or public corporation, government agency, international organization, academic institution or consortium, NGO, etc. Note that in some cases the CA may be of a hybrid type, e.g., a corporation established by the government. For government CAs, the type of government should be noted, e.g., national, regional/state/provincial, or municipal.)
  4. Primary market / customer base
    • Which types of customers does the CA serve?
    • Are there particular vertical market segments in which it operates?
    • Does the CA focus its activities on a particular country or other geographic region?
  5. Impact to Mozilla Users
    • If your CA will only issue certificates within your organization or for a small number of websites, then rather than including your root certificate in NSS, please consider having your CA hierarchy cross-signed with one of the already-included CA certificates. If your CA will be issuing certificates to the public or to a large number of websites, then please respond to the following questions.
    • Why does the CA need to have their root certificate directly included in Mozilla’s products, rather than being signed by another CA’s root certificate that is already included in NSS?
    • Does this CA have root certificates included in any other major browsers? If yes, which? If no, why not?
    • Describe the types of Mozilla users who are likely to encounter your root certificate as relying parties while web browsing (HTTPS servers doing SSL), sending/receiving email to their own MTA (SMTPS, IMAPS servers doing SSL), sending/receiving S/MIME email (S/MIME email certs), etc.
    • Mozilla CA certificate policy:
      • We will determine which CA certificates are included in software products distributed through mozilla.org, based on the benefits and risks of such inclusion to typical users of those products.
      • We require that all CAs whose certificates are distributed with our software product ... provide some service relevant to typical users of our software products

CA Primary Point of Contact (POC)

A CA may have more than one person filling the role of Primary Point of Contact (POC), and may use a contractor as one of the POCs. The CA must have one or more people within the CA’s organization who jointly have authority to speak on behalf of the CA, and to direct whatever changes the review process or Mozilla’s CA Communications require. At least one of the CA’s POCs should also be in a position to make commitments for the CA and be held accountable by the CA.

The POCs will:

Required contact information:

  • A direct E-mail address to a specific individual within the CA (must be one of the POCs).
  • CA Email Alias: An email alias is being requested so that more than one person in your organization will receive notifications in case the primary contact is out of the office or leaves the organization. Mozilla CA Communications will be sent to both the POC direct email address(es) and the email alias.
  • CA Phone Number: A main phone number from which Mozilla can reach the organization responsible for root certificates for the CA.
  • Title / Department: If Mozilla needed to call your main phone number, what Title/Department should the Mozilla representative ask for?

If the CA uses a contractor as an additional POC, then someone at the CA must be CC’d on the root inclusion Bugzilla bug, CA Communications, and the CA’s responses to CA Communications.

  • An individual within the CA must also get a Bugzilla account and comment in the bug to say that they will be a POC for the CA, and that the contractor has indeed been hired by the CA to act as one of the POCs.

To ensure that the POC(s) has the authority to perform the tasks listed above, a representative of Mozilla will do the following.

  1. Use the CA’s website, to confirm that the domain in the email address of at least one of the POCs is owned by the CA (e.g. @CAname.com).
  2. Use the CA’s website to contact a person at the CA to confirm that at least one of the POCs that have been provided does indeed have the authority to perform the responsibilities listed above on behalf of the CA.
  3. If a contractor is also used as a POC, then contact the POC that was previously verified to confirm that the CA has indeed enlisted the help of the contractor.

Technical information about each root certificate

The information listed in this section must be provided for each root CA whose certificate is to be included in Mozilla, or whose metadata is to be modified.

  1. Certificate Name
    • This is the "friendly name" to be used when displaying information about the root, e.g., "GeoTrust Global CA". It is typically identical to or a variant of the CN found within the Subject attribute of the root CA certificate itself.
  2. Certificate Issuer Field
    • The Organization Name and CN in the Issuer must have sufficient information about the CA Organization.
  3. Certificate Summary
    • A summary about this root certificate, it's purpose, and the types of certificates that are issued under it.
  4. Root Certificate URL
    • A public URL through which the CA certificate can be directly downloaded.
  5. SHA1 fingerprint
  6. Valid from (YYYY-MM-DD)
    • The date from which the root CA certificate is valid.
  7. Valid to (YYYY-MM-DD)
    • The date until which the root CA certificate is valid.
  8. Certificate Version (should be 3)
    • The X.509 certificate version
  9. Certificate Signature Algorithm
  10. Signing key parameters
    • For RSA keys, the modulus length, for example, 2048 or 4096 bits.
    • For ECC keys, the named curve, for example, NIST Curve P-256, P-384, or P-512.
  11. Test website URL -- if you are requesting to enable the Websites (SSL/TLS) trust bit
    • URL to a website whose SSL cert chains up to this root. Note that this can be a test site.
    • Make sure you test it yourself in Firefox first, by doing the following:
      1. Restore the default certificate settings as described here.
      2. Import the root certificate as described here.
      3. Set OCSP hard fail as described here.
      4. Clear browser history
      5. Browse to the test website.
      6. Open the Web Console to check for any warnings (e.g. SHA-1, etc.) that should be addressed.
      • Intermediate CA certificates are expected to be distributed to the certificate subjects (the holders of the private keys) together with the subjects' own certificates. Those subject parties (e.g. SSL servers) are then expected to send out the intermediate CA certificates together with their own certificates whenever they are asked to send out their certificates. That is required by SSL/TLS.
      • Certificate authorities MUST advise their subscribers that all intermediate certificates should be installed in the servers containing the dependent subscriber certificates.
  12. Example certificates
    • If this root does not issue certificates for SSL, then provide example certificate(s) issued within the hierarchy rooted at this root, including the full certificate chain(s).
  13. Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs)
    • URL(s) at which the CRL(s) may be obtained -- for end-entity certs and for intermediate CAs.
    • The value that nextUpdate is set to in the CRLs for end-entity certificates.
    • The sections of your CP/CPS documentation that state the requirements about frequency of updating CRL.
    • Note the CA/Browser Forum's EV guidelines: CRLs MUST be updated and reissued at least every seven days, and the nextUpdate field value SHALL NOT be more ten days
  14. OCSP (OCSP is required for the SSL trust bit to be enabled)
    • The OCSP URI that is in the AIA of your subscriber certificates.
    • The maximum time elapsing from the revocation of an end entity or CA certificate until OCSP responders are updated to reflect that revocation.
    • The sections of your CP/CPS specifying availability and update requirements for the OCSP service.
      • CA/Browser Forum's EV Guidelines Section 26(b): “If the CA provides revocation information via an Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) service, it MUST update that service at least every four days. OCSP responses from this service MUST have a maximum expiration time of ten days.”
    • You must test that your OCSP service is compatible with the Firefox browser.
    • If you are requesting to enable EV, then you must also perform the PSM EV Testing to ensure that OCSP works correctly up the chain.
  15. Test Revocation
  16. Requested Trust Bits
    • State which of the three trust bits you are requesting to be enabled for this root. One or more of:
      • Websites (SSL/TLS)
      • Email (S/MIME)
      • Code Signing
    • Mozilla’s standpoint is that we should operate the root program in terms of minimizing risk. One way that we can minimize risk is by not enabling more trust bits than CAs absolutely require.
  17. SSL Validation Type
    • Indicate the levels of SSL validation that are used for certificates within this root's hierarchy. One or more of:
      • DV -- The ownership of the domain name is verified, but the identity/organization of the subscriber is not verified.
      • OV -- In addition to verifying the domain ownership, you also validate the organization to be listed in the O field - making sure public record and government resources can verify the address, existence, and good legal standing of the organization itself. Verifying that the whois listed address matches the verified address, and any other additional checks that a given CA lists in its CPS.
      • EV - Verification meets the requirements of the CA/Browser Forum CA/Browser Forum's EV Guidelines
  18. If EV certificates are issued within the hierarchy rooted at this root, the EV policy OID(s) associated with those EV certificates.

CA Hierarchy information for each root certificate

The information listed in this section must be provided for each root certificate to be included in Mozilla, or whose metadata is to be modified.

If Mozilla accepts and includes your root certificate, then we have to assume that we also accept any of your future sub-CAs and their sub-CAs. Therefore, the selection criteria for your sub-CAs and their sub-CAs will be a critical decision factor. As well as the documentation and auditing of operations requirements that you place on your sub-CAs and their sub-CAs.

  1. CA Hierarchy
    • A description of the PKI hierarchy rooted at or otherwise associated with this root CA certificate.
      • List and/or describe all of the subordinate CAs that are signed by this root.
      • Identify which of the subordinate CAs are internally-operated; e.g. list the subordinate CAs that operated by the CA organization associated with the root CA. For example, this might include subordinate CAs created to issue different classes or types of end entity certificates to the general public: Class 1 vs. class 2 certificates, qualified vs. non-qualified certificates, EV certificates vs. non-EV certificates, SSL certificates vs. email certificates, and so on.
        • It might also include subordinate CAs operated for the benefit of specific third parties. In this case note that we do not require that the CA submit a complete customer list; rather we are interested in the general type and nature of the third-party arrangements.
  2. Sub CAs Operated by 3rd Parties
    • If this root has any subordinate CA certificates that are operated by external third parties, then provide the information listed in the Subordinate CA Checklist
    • If the CA functions as a super CA such their CA policies and auditing don't apply to the subordinate CAs, then those CAs must apply for inclusion themselves as separate trust anchors.
  3. Cross-Signing
    • List all other root certificates for which this root certificate has issued cross-signing certificates.
    • List all other root certificates that have issued cross-signing certificates for this root certificate.
    • If any such cross-signing relationships exist, it is important to note whether the cross-signing CAs' certificates are already included in the Mozilla root store or not.
  4. Technical Constraints or Audits of Third-Party Issuers.

Verification Policies and Practices

We rely on publicly available documentation and audits of those documented processes to ascertain that the CA takes reasonable measures to confirm the identity and authority of the individual and/or organization of the certificate subscriber.

If the CP/CPS documents are not in English, then the portions of those documents pertaining to verification of the certificate subscriber must be translated into English. For all of the items listed below, provide both a pointer to the original document (and section or page number of the relevant text) as well as the translated text.

  1. Documentation: CP, CPS, and Relying Party Agreements
    • The publicly accessible URLs to the document repository and the published document(s) describing how certificates are issued within the hierarchy rooted at this root, as well as other practices associated with the root CA and other CAs in the hierarchy, including in particular the Certification Practice Statement(s) (CPS) and related documents.
    • The document(s) and section number(s) where the "Commitment to Comply" with the CA/Browser Forum Baseline Requirements may be found, as per BR #8.3.
  2. Audits
    • The publicly accessible URLs to the published document(s) relating to independent audit(s) of the root CA and any CAs within the hierarchy rooted at the root. For example, for WebTrust for CAs audits this would be the "audit report and management assertions" document available from the webtrust.org site or elsewhere.
      • Section 6 of Mozilla's CA Certificate Inclusion Policy: "We require that all CAs whose certificates are distributed with our software products: ... provide public attestation of their conformance to the stated verification requirements and other operational criteria by a competent independent party or parties with access to details of the CA’s internal operations."
    • We need a publishable (non-confidential) statement or letter from an auditor (who meets the requirements of the Mozilla CA Certificate Policy) that states that they have reviewed the practices as outlined in the CP/CPS for these roots, and that the CA does indeed follow these practices and meets the requirements of one of:
      • ETSI TS 101 456 V1.4.3 or later (only applicable to non-SSL certs)
      • ETSI TS 102 042 V2.3.1 or later
      • WebTrust Principles and Criteria for Certification Authorities v2.0 or later
      • Reference: sections 11 through 14 of Mozilla's CA Certificate Inclusion Policy.
    • Audits performed after January 2013 need to include verification of compliance with the CA/Browser Forum Baseline Requirements if SSL certificates may be issued within the CA hierarchy, and the audit statement shall indicate the results.
    • When audit statements are provided by the company requesting CA inclusion rather than having an audit report posted on the website such as cert.webtrust.org, the Mozilla process requires doing an independent verification of the authenticity of audit statements that have been provided. Provide the website and email address for the company that provided the audit statement.
      • If the information is available from the auditor's (or other third-party's) web site or from another authoritative web site (for example, webtrust.org for WebTrust reports), please provide the URL where the information can be found.
      • If you provide the information yourself (e.g., it is hosted on your own web site), please provide us with contact information for the auditor (or other third party).
      • Otherwise please ask the auditor (or other third party) to contact us directly and provide us the audit report(s) or other information.
    • The audit should not be more than a year old. If it is, then provide an estimate of when the updated audit report will be available. While ETSI Certificates may be valid for 3 years, it is our expectation that there is an annual renewal/review process for the ETSI Certificate to remain valid.
    • Renewed root certificates also need to be included in audits. If the root certificate was created after the most recent audit, then provide an estimate of when the new audit report (that includes the operations of the new root) will be available.
    • Government CAs
      • According to section 9 of Mozilla's CA Certificate Inclusion Policy, the audit must be performed according to criteria that is equivalent to one (or more) of ETSI TS 101 456, ETSI TS 102 042, or WebTrust CA. The government’s auditing agency should provide a statement about which of these their government criteria is equivalent to.
      • According to sections 10 and 11 of Mozilla's CA Certificate Inclusion Policy, it is acceptable for a government auditing organization to perform the audit of the government’s CA organization. It must be clear that the CA organization does not audit itself.
  3. SSL Verification Procedures
    • If you are requesting to enable the Websites (SSL/TLS) trust bit...
      • URLs and section/page number information pointing directly to the sections of the CP/CPS documents that describe the procedures for verifying that the domain referenced in an SSL cert is owned/controlled by the subscriber.
      • If a challenge-response mechanism via email is used to confirm the ownership/control of the domain name, then provide the list of email addresses that are used for verification.
      • Confirm that you have automatic blocks in place for high-profile domain names (including those targeted in the DigiNotar and Comodo attacks in 2011).
        • Specify the procedure for additional verification of a certificate request that is blocked.
      • If OV verification is performed, then provide URLs and section/page number information pointing directly to the sections of the CP/CPS documents that describe the procedures for verifying the identity, existence, and authority of the organization to request the certificate.
        • There should be a description of the types of resources that are used to confirm the authenticity of the information provided by the certificate subscriber, what data is retrieved from public resources, and how that data is used for verification of the entity referenced in the certificate.
      • If EV verification is performed, then provide URLs and section/page number information pointing directly to the sections of the CP/CPS documents that pertain to EV and describe the procedures for verifying the ownership/control of the domain name, and the verification of identity, existence, and authority of the organization to request the EV certificate.
        • The EV verification documentation must meet the requirements of the CA/Browser Forum's EV Guidelines, and must also provide information specific to the CA's operations.
  4. Email Address Verification Procedures
    • If you are requesting to enable the Email (S/MIME) trust bit...
      • URLs and section/page number information pointing directly to the sections of the CP/CPS documents that describe the procedures for verifying that the email address to be included in the certificate is owned/controlled by the certificate subscriber.
      • Recommended Practices for Verifying Email Address
        • Note that per the Mozilla policy this verification must be done in addition to any verification of the subscriber’s legal identity.
      • If subscriber identity verification is performed, then provide URLs and section/page number information pointing directly to the sections of the CP/CPS documents that describe the procedures for verifying the identity and authority of the certificate subscriber.
  5. Code Signing Subscriber Verification Procedures
  6. Multi-factor Authentication
    • Confirm that multi-factor authentication is required for all accounts capable of directly causing certificate issuance or specify the technical controls that are implemented by the CA to restrict certificate issuance through the account to a limited set of pre-approved domains or email addresses.
      • For each account that can access the certificate issuance system, do you have the log-in procedure require something in addition to username/password?
      • Specify the form factor that you use. Examples of multi-factor authentication include smartcards, client certificates, one-time-passwords, and hardware tokens.
      • This must apply to all accounts that can cause the approval and/or issuance of end-entity certificates, including your RAs and sub-CAs, unless there are technical controls that are implemented and controlled by the CA to restrict certificate issuance through the account to a limited set of pre-approved domains or email addresses.
      • If technical controls are used instead of multi-factor auth for any accounts, then specify what those technical controls are.
  7. Network Security
    • CAs must maintain current best practices for network security, and have qualified network security audits performed on a regular basis. The CA/Browser Forum has published a document called Network and Certificate System Security Requirements which should be used as guidance for protecting network and supporting systems.
    • Confirm that you have done the following, and will do the following on a regular basis:
      • Maintain network security controls that at minimum meet the Network and Certificate System Security Requirements.
      • Check for mis-issuance of certificates, especially for high-profile domains.
      • Review network infrastructure, monitoring, passwords, etc. for signs of intrusion or weakness.
      • Ensure Intrusion Detection System and other monitoring software is up-to-date.
      • Confirm that you will be able to shut down certificate issuance quickly if you are alerted of intrusion.

Response to Mozilla's CA Recommended Practices

Review Mozilla's CA Recommended Practices. If your practices differ from any of these recommended practices, then describe those differences and explain how the concern(s) are addressed.

Response to Mozilla's list of Potentially Problematic Practices

Review Mozilla's list of Potentially Problematic Practices. For each one, state if it is or is not applicable. For the ones that are applicable, provide URLs and section/page number information pointing directly to the sections of the CP/CPS documents that are relevant, and explain how you address the concern(s).

  1. Long-lived DV certificates
  2. Wildcard DV SSL certificates
  3. Email Address Prefixes for DV Certs
  4. Delegation of Domain / Email validation to third parties
  5. Issuing end entity certificates directly from roots
  6. Allowing external entities to operate subordinate CAs
  7. Distributing generated private keys in PKCS#12 files
  8. Certificates referencing hostnames or private IP addresses
  9. Issuing SSL Certificates for Internal Domains
  10. OCSP Responses signed by a certificate under a different root
  11. SHA-1 Certificates
  12. Generic names for CAs
  13. Lack of Communication With End Users
  14. Backdating the notBefore date