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Introducing Pulse

Pulse is a managed RabbitMQ cluster designed to provide loose coupling between automation and infrastructure tools. The goal of Pulse is to add visibility to Mozilla's tools and systems and to eliminate polling and other brittle methods of scraping data. This allows more robust, dynamic, and informative tools.

Pulse is available at (AMQP over SSL). It is hosted by CloudAMQP.

PulseGuardian is a tool that manages Pulse's users and queues (and eventually exchanges). It is available at and hosted by Heroku.

We have a discussion forum available via the standard trio of USENET newsgroup, mailing list, and Google Group.

File bugs under Webtools :: Pulse. We don't have a separate component for PulseGuardian; rather, we just start the summaries with "[PulseGuardian]".

Also see the Pulse Inspector web app, which displays Pulse messages in real time, and the (manually updated) list of Pulse exchanges.

System Description

Pulse isn't any one thing. At its heart, it is a RabbitMQ system with a particular configuration and a set of conventions for using it along with a management tool, PulseGuardian, to make Pulse as automated and self-serve as possible. Pulse follows the pub-sub pattern, in which publishers send messages to topic exchanges, and consumers create queues bound to these exchanges in order to subscribe to the publishers' messages. In general, publishers create and own exchanges, and consumers create and own queues.


Pulse is a managed AMQP 0-9-1 service with RabbitMQ extensions for publishing messages from Mozilla infrastructure. The aim is provide hooks that subscribers can use to integrate and extend Mozilla infrastructure.


Pulse credentials are managed and issued by PulseGuardian, available at This service SHALL issue an accessToken for any clientId that is registered with authorized email address. The accessToken is strictly secret and MUST NOT be shared publicly. The clientId is not secret. When establishing an AMQP connection, the clientId and accessToken MUST be used as username and password, respectively.

Authorized Users

Pulse is intended to be open to all Mozillians who want to extend or integrate with Mozilla infrastructure. To guard against abuse PulseGuardian users MUST authenticate via Persona. PulseGuardian SHOULD verify that users have a vouched Mozillians profile.


Publishers MUST name exchanges in the form exchange/<clientId>/<name> where clientId is the userid used to bind/connect to the server. Attempts to name an exchange otherwise SHALL result in an authorization error. Exchanges MUST be topic exchanges and they MUST be declared durable.

Messages MUST contain a UTF-8-encoded JSON payload, and their Content-Type MUST be application/json. Messages SHOULD NOT be larger than 8 kB; deviations may be feasible for low-traffic exchanges. Messages MUST NOT contain secret or sensitive information; all exchanges and messages SHALL be considered public.

A message SHOULD carry a routing key, in which fields have a fixed index from the left. Additionally, a message MAY be cced to multiple routing keys, using the RabbitMQ Sender-selected Distribution extension.

Messages SHOULD be durable and SHOULD be published over RabbitMQ confirm-publish channels. Otherwise, the documentation MUST clearly reflect that messages from the given exchange do not exhibit deliver at-least-once semantics.


Subscribers MUST name queues in the form queue/<clientId>/<name>; attempts to name a queue otherwise SHALL result in an authorization error. Queues MAY consume from any exchange prefixed exchange/; attempts to consume from any other exchange SHALL result in an authentication error.

Subscribers MAY limit the size of their queues using the RabbitMQ Queue Length Limit extension. Subscribers MUST NOT let their queues grow unbounded; if left unattended, Pulse SHALL notify the owner by email. Additionally, Pulse MAY delete a queue which exceeds defined limits. Subscribers SHOULD specify a prefetch limit using the RabbitMQ Consumer Prefetch limit extension.

Subscribers SHOULD use either durable queues or auto-delete queues. Implementors are recommended to aim for deliver-at-least-once semantics.

Appendix A: Everything in Bullet Points

This is a summary of the above.




  • MUST be named exchange/<clientId>/<name>
  • MUST be topic exchanges
  • MUST be durable


  • MUST be UTF-8-encoded JSON
  • MUST carry application/json as Content-Type
  • SHOULD be durable
  • SHOULD be less than 8 KiB (for good performance)
  • MAY be CC'ed to multiple routing keys
  • MUST NOT contain private or sensitive information
  • SHOULD have a routing key where fields have a fixed index from the left



  • MUST be named queue/<clientId>/<name>
  • MAY have a limited length
  • MUST not grow unbounded

Let's Use It

There are currently two Pulse clients available. Please note that you can also connect to Pulse in other languages, provided you have an AMQP 0.9.1 library that will let you interact with AMQP exchanges. See for example.

Python Pulse client library

The mozillapulse Python package provides classes for existing publishers, consumers, and messages so you can quickly build Pulse applications. See the README to get started (although note that the test publisher is currently offline; see bug 1218976. You can use another consumer, e.g. BuildConsumer, to verify your setup.).

This library is somewhat inflexible, however, and should be rewritten. One idea is to turn TaskCluster's Python client into a standalone package.

Go (golang) Pulse client library

This can be found here:

Extensions for TaskCluster exchanges here (see section "AMQP APIs"):


To set up a local system for development, see the file included in the mozillapulse source.

The main Pulse library (mozillapulse) and publisher shims (pulseshims) are written in Python, although there is also a Go library as mentioned in the section above. We also want to provide a canonical JavaScript library at some point. To hack on the main Pulse library, you should be comfortable in Python, and it's helpful to understand the basics of AMQP. Knowledge of kombu is also useful.

To hack on PulseGuardian, you should know some Python and JavaScript. Experience with Flask, SQLAlchemy, and RabbitMQ are useful, but you can probably learn what you need as you fix bugs.

Feel free to stop by #pulse or #ateam with questions!

Here is the list of open, unassigned, mentored Pulse and PulseGuardian bugs to get you started.

Full Query
ID Summary Priority Status
1034434 Enable ssl support in dev vagrant box P3 NEW
1079523 [PulseGuardian] List exchanges with ability to delete P2 NEW
1215664 [PulseGuardian] Add email addresses for notifications to a Pulse user P1 NEW
1273292 [PulseGuardian] Add alembic migration to create initial database P2 NEW

4 Total; 4 Open (100%); 0 Resolved (0%); 0 Verified (0%);

Once you have your feet wet and are ready to take on a more involved project, here is a list of all current Pulse bugs:

Full Query
ID Summary Priority Status
619728 Messages sent via the python shim lib assume Pacific P4 NEW
632517 Instrument MDN to send messages to Pulse P4 NEW
843212 [pulsetranslator] talos chrome.2 test should be published as chrome_2 P4 NEW
859697 [pulsebuildmonitor] Add a hidden option for durable queues P4 NEW
968723 [pulsetranslator] TypeError: argument of type 'NoneType' is not iterable (builddata['platform']) P3 NEW
1012515 [mozillapulse] Improve constructor interfaces P4 NEW
1034434 Enable ssl support in dev vagrant box P3 NEW
1066684 [mozillapulse] Require user and password P3 NEW
1068444 Ensure that we use confirm-channels P2 NEW
1068445 [PulseGuardian] Integrated user-backup system P4 NEW
1071947 Support for notifying mailing lists P3 NEW
1079523 [PulseGuardian] List exchanges with ability to delete P2 NEW
1084706 API for listing queues by user (useful for bulk deletion after tests) P2 NEW
1090999 Create sphinx documentation and a readthedocs page for mozillapulse -- NEW
1093046 pulsebuildmonitor better timestamps and logged messages -- NEW
1104911 pulsetranslator test app -- ASSIGNED
1105505 [PulseGuardian] Admins should see unowned queues P2 NEW
1105510 [pulsetranslator] Add linux64-st-an to the supported list of platforms -- NEW
1118261 Please add (sequential) ID to every pulse message P3 NEW
1133602 Write an official node.js library and a new, more extensible Python package P1 NEW
1142022 Auto ack/nack in pulse-go library -- NEW
1150726 [PulseGuardian] Smarter queue monitoring to facilitate bursty loads P2 NEW
1174979 [pulsetranslator] some locales are JSON! -- NEW
1194653 [mozillapulse] Missing information from which exchange a message is coming in case of multiple exchanges -- NEW
1201153 [pulsetranslator] Listening stops after publish failure -- NEW
1203050 [pulsetranslator] Individual test package URLs are not forwarded -- NEW
1208595 ensure releng clients can handle pulse-in-cloud properly -- NEW
1215462 [PulseGuardian] Pulse warning emails should contain link to PulseGuardian website -- NEW
1215520 [PulseGuardian] Handle auth failures gracefully P1 NEW
1215664 [PulseGuardian] Add email addresses for notifications to a Pulse user P1 NEW
1218976 [PulseGuardian] Integrate heartbeat/test publisher with PulseGuardian -- NEW
1222361 [pulsetranslator] Include TaskCluster builds/tests -- NEW
1235180 [PulseGuardian] Use PostGres and/or temporary sqlite file for tests P3 NEW
1245621 [PulseGuardian] Flask-SSLify should not be required if running locally P4 ASSIGNED
1270501 [PulseGuardian] Don't reset everything in the UI when autoload is enabled -- NEW
1273292 [PulseGuardian] Add alembic migration to create initial database P2 NEW
1297547 pulse outage on 2016-08-23 around 22:53 UTC -- NEW
1297669 pulseguardian web interface shows application error -- NEW
1298859 Determine an SLA for Pulse -- NEW
1298862 Determine how well CloudAMQP meets our SLA -- NEW
1298867 [PulseGuardian] Monitor connection load -- NEW
1298929 Disaster Recovery plan -- NEW
1338456 [PulseGuardian] Does not clear overgrowing state resulting in warning spam -- NEW
1346304 [PulseGuardian] Randomly generate passwords rather than prompting for them -- NEW
1347088 [PulseGuardian] "Queue is overgrowing" email needs adjustment for unbounded queues -- NEW
1347093 [PulseGuardian] Add UI for allowing admins to mark queues as unbounded -- NEW
1372755 Intermittent failure in mozillapulse tests on Travis CI -- NEW
1387300 [PulseGuardian] CSP errors on DuoSec page -- NEW
1401810 [PulseGuardian] Add migration to drop owner_id from pulse_users -- NEW
1402668 Servo pull requests should get linked to bugs if they mention them in the PR body -- NEW
1403312 Pulseguardian email login gives me ISE 500 -- NEW
1403343 Pulse warning emails mention exchange "could not be determined" -- NEW
1406249 [PulseGuardian] Entirely ignore some queues -- NEW
1414302 Getting 500 error on login -- NEW
1429479 Remove the autolander pulse user and related queues -- NEW
1434385 [PulseGuardian] "My Pulse Users" shows unowned queues as directly belonging to admins -- NEW
1434387 [PulseGuardian] "All Pulse Users" and "All Users" display the same contents -- NEW
1434432 [PulseGuardian] Content Security Policy errors -- NEW
1434435 [PulseGuardian] Unable to delete Pulse users wptsync-{upstream,downstream}-test -- NEW
1436623 Redistribute connections among Pulse nodes -- NEW
1436682 Memory alarm pulse orange-antelope-03 -- NEW
1436899 Use SSL to connect to Postgres database -- NEW
1436970 [PulseGuardian] Upgrade to Heroku-16 stack -- NEW
1455630 mozillapulse consumers die with TimeoutError on Python 3.3+ -- NEW
1464389 Please delete the pulse_actions Pulse user -- NEW
1508741 Support consuming events from Pulse using a guest account -- NEW
1509429 [PulseGuardian] JS errorMessage() function doesn't exist -- NEW
1509431 crashes in docker when trying to send email -- NEW

68 Total; 68 Open (100%); 0 Resolved (0%); 0 Verified (0%);

For mentored bugs, we use the User Story to provide a link back to this page, as well as any extra information for contributors, such as required knowledge or tools. The basic text for mentored bugs should be "This is a mentored Pulse bug. For general information on Pulse, see, which includes a section on Contributing." An example of extra text is "This bug also requires you to have a working mail server."

Consuming Buildbot messages

There are two ways to consume messages published by Buildbot. The most direct way, which requires the most knowledge about Buildbot, is using the BuildConsumer in mozillapulse. This consumer has access to all the native Buildbot messages, and therefore offers the most flexibility.

The disadvantage of using the BuildConsumer is that you need to spend time understanding what messages Buildbot publishes to Pulse, and how these can vary, and associate particular messages with what you're trying to accomplish. The format of Buildbot messages is undocumented, and can change without warning, which makes services based on the BuildConsumer potentially fragile.

To address some of these disadvantages, a translator is run against the BuildConsumer (the pulsetranslator) which re-publishes a subset of Buildbot messages to a NormalizedBuild exchange, which are available using the NormalizedBuildConsumer of mozillapulse. The content of these messages is simplified and normalized, making it easier to consume without the need to have a thorough understanding of how Buildbot publishes messages to Pulse. The re-published messages also protect consumers against some changes to the Pulse stream, although significant enough changes will likely break pulsetranslator as well as direct users of BuildConsumer.

Another advantage of the NormalizedBuildConsumer is that it will only publish messages for a given build or test job after the logs for that job are available; using the BuildConsumer directly can result in the reception of messages for a build before the build artifacts are available, which can cause problems in consumers if they don't explicitly guard against this.

Generally speaking, consumers that wish to be notified when specific build or test jobs are completed should use the NormalizedBuildConsumer; consumers that need direct access to the Buildbot Pulse stream or are looking for non-specific jobs (such as all jobs belonging to a particular commit) should probably use the BuildConsumer.

Road Map

See the prioritized bug list for all open issues and feature requests.

Security Model

This is summarized in the formal Pulse specification above. What follows is the rationale and some technical implementation notes.

In order to have a reliable, well behaved system, the following assertions will need to be true.

  • All users, publishers and consumers alike, must have their own accounts (no guest/public users).
  • Only publishers should be able to declare exchanges.
  • Only the publisher user account associated with a particular vhost should be allowed to publish messages to exchanges in the vhost. In other words, exactly one user account should be allowed to publish messages within a given vhost.
  • Only the user that created a particular queue should be allowed to consume from it.

Since exchange and queue permissions go together, we'll need exchange and queue naming conventions mixed with restrictive permissions. Each user will be restricted to a particular exchange and queue naming prefix. Many users will be either consumers or publishers, but for simplicity, each user can do both. Users will have full permissions on "^exchange/<username>/.*$" and "^queue/<username>/.*$". They will also have read permissions to exchange/*. This will both prevent users from writing to other users' exchanges as well as prevent them from consuming from other users' queues. For convenience, if a consumer creates a nondurable queue, mozillapulse can assign a random suffix to the user's standard queue name prefix, i.e. queue/<username>/<random string>, since the user wouldn't be able to create nor access a completely random server-assigned name.

Note that this doesn't prevent a consumer from creating an exchange named as a queue, since the permission model doesn't distinguish between queues and exchanges, and consumers need the ability to create queues. This is not particularly problematic, since no one would have permission to use that exchange.

With this security model, we technically don't really need vhosts, since the names of the queues and exchanges the users can use are so specific. There may still be a benefit in allowing apps to use the same queue name for different exchanges, though, which would be possible if each exchange had its own vhost. The downside is that you cannot specify "all vhosts" when setting a user's permissions, so they would either have to list all vhosts they want to use when creating the user in PulseGuardian, and be able to update that list later, or PulseGuardian or some other app would have to automatically add new permissions to all users when a vhost is created.

Admin Procedures

jgriffin and mcote have access to the Pulse cluster on CloudAMQP and the following related services:

  • PulseGuardian should be deleting queues that are too long. If you need to manually delete a queue, use the Management UI. Try to ping the queue owner first before killing if possible.
  • pulsetranslator service, which normalizes Buildbot messages, is currently running on Heroku and may need to be reset from time to time.

More reading

  • Slides from a presentation on Pulse.
  • Update on Pulse from 2015/02/16.

LegNeato also wrote several blog posts on Pulse as he was building it. They contain some more background if you're really interested. They are linked below, in chronological order.