Security/DNS Over HTTPS

From MozillaWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

This article describes the various mechanics of Firefox's DNS over HTTPS (DoH) frontend. See Trusted Recursive Resolver for details on TRR implementation in necko.


Flow Diagram

DoH Frontend Flow Diagram


  • The DoH frontend and its sub-features are gated behind prefs that are set to true via Normandy Rollouts, which allows us to target specific regions and control population size and growth so we can manage risk.
  • The pref `doh-rollout.enabled`, serves as a blanket gate. Every mechanism described below depends on this pref being set to true.
  • Individual mechanisms may be additionally gated behind their own prefs. This is indicated where relevant.

See also:



  • We run various heuristics to determine whether the network is (un)suitable to enable DoH.
  • The heuristics are run at startup and upon network changes.
  • DoH is enabled on the network if all heuristics pass, and disabled otherwise.
  • Main article: Security/DNS Over HTTPS/Heuristics.

Respecting User-choice

  • If we detect that the user changed their DoH settings in about:preferences, we permanently turn off our heuristics and other mechanisms. The user-set values are obeyed.
  • This holds for prefs that were set prior to enrollment in the rollout.

Enterprise Policy

  • In order to avoid interfering with enterprise-configured network behaviors, we disable our heuristics and other mechanisms if any policy is active on the client.
  • This is true whether the policy is configured on the local machine or propagated by the network e.g. via Group Policy.
  • If a DNSOverHTTPS policy to turn on DoH is in effect, this is respected and heuristics and other mechanisms will be enabled.

Default Provider Selection

  • Before running heuristics for the first time, we attempt to choose one of the available providers as the default for the profile.
  • The chosen default is used whenever DoH is enabled, via the pref `doh-rollout.uri`.
  • A network-provided endpoint, if detected, will take precedence over the default provider when on that network. (See Provider Steering below)
  • This feature is controlled by the prefs `doh-rollout.trr-selection.enabled`.
  • Choice of provider is made by using each available provider to do lookup several popular domains as well as random subdomains of ``.

See also:


Dry-Run Mechanism

  • Default provider selection is done in two phases: a dry-run followed by committing the result.
  • By default, this feature is dry-run-only, and records the result in a pref `doh-rollout.trr-selection.dry-run-result`.
  • Committing the result is enabled by another pref `doh-rollout.trr-selection.commit-result`. If this is true, then after the dry-run step, the `dry-run-result` will be copied into `doh-rollout.uri`.

DoH automatic provider selection flow

Provider Steering

  • Some providers supply their own DoH endpoints which we want to use if indicated.
  • This capability is discovered via the CNAME response when looking up the domain `doh.test`.
  • Discovery is only attempted if all heuristics are passing on the network.
  • A DoH endpoint discovered in this manner takes precedence over the automatically chosen default provider (see Default Provider Selection above).
  • A provider (endpoint + expected CNAME for discovery) must be explicitly supported for this mechanism to work.
  • Currently, Comcast (US) and Shaw (CA) are our only supported providers.
  • This feature is controlled by the pref `doh-rollout.provider-steering.enabled`.

DoH Provider Steering Flow

See also:


Opt-out Infobar

DoH Infobar screenshot

  • When the client is first enrolled in the rollout, we show an infobar popup to let the user know that DoH is available.
  • This infobar offers an option to opt-out, which results in permanently disabling heuristics and other mechanisms.
  • The infobar is shown only if the rollout is "successful" - i.e. the user did not already have custom DoH preferences or active enterprise policy.
  • The infobar is implemented as a CFR message, gated behind the relevant prefs.

See also:


Want to see this in action for yourself?

  1. On a new profile, navigate to about:config
  2. Set `doh-rollout.enabled` to true
  3. Close about:config
  4. Load/reload any website

You'll need to do this in an environment that doesn't trip our heurisitics, i.e. no Canary and no enterprise config.


  • Interaction and functional data is collected in the form of two telemetry Events.
  • A state event is sent when the DoHController's state changes, e.g. when DoH is enabled or disabled on the network, when a user-choice results in disabling heuristics, when a rollback is detected, etc.
  • A heuristics event is sent whenever we run heuristics, containing the result of each heuristic as its payload, along with the trigger (e.g. startup, network change) and the provider steering status.

See also:



  • We have several migrations to support users upgrading from older versions of Firefox as well as the rollout when they upgrade to newer versions.
  • Two of the migrations work on the format of stored state (local storage and prefs)
  • During a dry-run-only test of Default Provider Selection, an underlying bug was triggered that caused clients to effectively DDoS NextDNS's endpoint. In the aftermath, a new endpoint was set up and we have a migration to convert occurrences of the old endpoint in stored URI values to the new one.


  • doh-rollout.enabled - Turns on heuristics. Prerequisite for enabling sub-features.
  • doh-rollout.provider-steering.enabled - Turns on automatic provider steering.
  • doh-rollout.provider-steering.provider-list - Provider data for automatic steering (name, CNAME for discovery, and DoH endpoint)
  • doh-rollout.trr-selection.enabled - Turns on automatic performance-based default-TRR selection. Dry-run by default.
  • doh-rollout.trr-selection.commit-result - Commits and persists TRR selection dry-run result.

TODO: other state prefs